Evidence of disease and birth defects in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and other territories affected by the Chernobyl disaster in 1986
page 3

10 year study compared with 5 years shows long term decline in health of 960 Uzbekistan residents who had been liquidators. "...effects of small dose radiation exposure eventually amount to the accelerated biological ageing of the body".

THE ROLE OF IONISING RADIATION IN REALISATION OF HEREDITARY PREDISPOSITION TO CANCER IN LIQUIDATORS OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT CONSEQUENCES. Barhnarel I, et al. Nat Scientific and Practical Centre of Prev. Med; Polyclinic of Treatment -Sanatorium and Rehab. Assoc. of Moldova State Office; Inst. of Oncology, Kishniev, Moldova
Radiation as a promoter of hereditary predisposition to cancer.

INCORPORATED CAESIUM137 AND PATHOLOGY OF THE THYROID GLAND. Bandazhevsky Yu I. Inst. of Radiation Safety Minsk Be.
Post mortem examination of subjects in whom no sign of thyroid disease had been detected showed that all thyroids, including those of children born some years after the accident, displayed anomalies which might contribute to functional disorders, neoplasms and auto immune reactions.

RADIO CAESIUM AND CONGENITAL MALFORMATION Bandazhevsky Yu I. Inst. of Radiation Safety Minsk Be.
Increases in congenital malformation correlated with levels of ground deposition of Caesium. Research by Gomel Medical Institute cited as showing that incorporated caesium137 down to 50Bq/kg impaired cellular metabolism, especially protein synthesis. Foetuses with CNS damage showed higher level of Cs137 in placenta compared with other deformities. Experiments with hamsters injected with Cs137 compromised by feed cereals being "not totally free of Cs 137" - 20% of control animals showed malformations of multifactorial origin.

INCORPORATED RADIO CAESIUM AND CARDIOVASCULAR PATHOLOGY Bandazhevsky Yu I, Bandazhevskaia G. Inst. of Radiation Safety Minsk Be.
Autopsies on 285 people from contaminated regions, including in adults and young children, who died suddenly commonly showed cardiac dilation and congestive heart failure. Average Cs concentration was 26 Bq/kg. Tissues of 98.6% of cases were degenerated, with atrophic or hypertrophic cariomyocytes, loss of striation, mycocytolosis, pycnotic nuclei, cell death, with focal cellular accumulation, and generalised interstitial oedema without infiltrations. Other organs showed similar degenerative cellular dystrophy. Clinical investigation of children showed satisfactory nutrition but chronic levels over 30 Bq/kg body weight were often associated with serious cardiovascular diseases.
Rats fed with Caesium-contaminated cereals showed major cardiac metabolic dysfunction.

CS137 MEASURES [measurements] AND PUBLIC HEALTH Bandazhevsky Yu I, and Nesterenko V B Inst. Rad. Safety Minsk Be.
Many thousand of measurements of Cs in body tissue and food showed enormous variation in levels incorporated, whereas various metabolic dysfunctions demonstrated a strictly linear relationship. Concludes that averaged and theoretical considerations of the effects of environmental contamination are useless.

MEDICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF INCORPORATED CS137 IN RADIO RESISTANT HUMAN TISSUES Bandazhevsky Yu I, and Nesterenko V B Inst. Rad Safety Minsk Be. and Rudak E A , Inst. Nat Acad. Sci of Belarus Minsk
Draws attention to elevated cardiovascular death rate in Belarus in 2001 and health effects of radio caesium described in other papers. Hypothesises that conventional methods of calculating equivalent dose and assessing the impact of radiation from radionuclides incorporated in body organs tends to underestimate hazard by overlooking the approximately 100-fold increase in energy loss [ionisation density] due to deceleration of electrons interacting with tissue.

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