Evidence of disease and birth defects in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and other territories affected by the Chernobyl disaster in 1986
page 13

REPRODUCTIVE LOSSES AMONG INHABITANTS OF SOME DISTRICTS OF KIEV REGION (BY OBSTETRIC COLLECTION DATA 1992-1996) Timchenko O et al. Ukrainian Sci. Cent. of Hyg. Ministry of Public Health of Ukraine, Kiev; Kiev Public Health Department of State Administration, Ukraine
"Reproductive losses" were defined in terms of data for spontaneous abortion, abortion "on genetic evidence", stillbirth, premature births [?="newborns"] and perinatal (6 day) mortality. "It was determined that relative risk of reproductive losses in rural district contaminated with radionuclides relative to rural clean district accounted 0.78 with confidence intervals (CI) 0.69-0.89 and in urban contaminated district in relation to rural clean district 0.61 (CI 0.5-0.68)."

SCREENING OF LEUKAEMIAS AND LYMPHOMAS IN BELARUS AMONG PERSONS AFFECTED BY THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT IN CHILDHOOD Tolochko G V et al. Res. Inst. of Haem. and Blood Trans. Minsk; Haem. Clin. of Reg. Hosp. Gomel Belarus.
Epidemiological study of haematological diseases in Belarus was a "blank spot" before Chernobyl, although the authors establish that Gomel experienced lower rates than Belarus as a whole (RR 0.9 for all hemoblastoses, 0.8 leukaemias). They have previously reported that in 7 post-accident years child "blastoses" rates tended to increase in all Belarus regions and in the nation as a whole, though not reaching statistical significance. The tendency was present in acute leukaemia and chronic myeloid leukaemia across areas with different levels of contamination. Leukaemia rates in Gomel now equal those in all Belarus. Results of the present research on a well defined cohort who were in utero at the time of accident are not given.

THYROID CANCER IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN UKRAINE AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT (1986-1996) Tronko N et al. V P Komisarenko's Inst. of Endocr. and Metab. AMS of Ukraine Kiev; Sci. Cent. for Rad. Med. AMS of Ukraine. Kiev

DELAYED RADIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT Tsyb A F Med. Radiol. Sci. Cent. of Russian AMS Obninsk
Increase in thyroid cancer in children and adolescents and in emergency workers is the most significant effect. Risk in children 0-4 years is 6-10 times higher than in adults.

SOME RESULTS OF VALEOLOGIC TECHNOLOGIES APPLICATION IN ANNUAL PROPHYLACTIC EXAMINATIONS OF WORKABLE POPULATION Shilenko V N et al. Specialised Medico-Sanitary Divn. No. 5 Slavutych Ukraine; Ukrainian Inst. for Public Health, Kiev.
Results include: majority of adult population is of low and lower than intermediate levels of physical health (73% of men, 77% women); only 4.5% of men and 3.0% of women are healthy; health deteriorates with age, and accelerated ageing is prevalent.

CONSEQUENCES OF THE CHERNOBYL CATASTROPHE: HUMAN HEALTH ed. Burlakova E. B. Centre for Russian Environmental Policy, Scientific Council on Radiobiology, Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow 1996 ISBN 5-88587-019-5
The contributing authors, most of whom work at the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Russian Academy of Medical Science, specialise in the effects of small doses of radiation on living organisms. This book offered early evidence, based on objective human measurement, of radiation induced immune deficiency and chromosome damage. The methods and the new mechanisms proposed explain much of the health detriment which is seen to be associated with radioactivity in the environment. In particular the paper by Professor Burlakova offers insights into biphasic and more complex dose response curves which could account for the non-linear nature of many observations.

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